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Turing Complete

A system or language is said to be “Turing complete” if it can simulate a Turing machine—a mathematical model of computation that defines an abstract machine capable of solving any computational problem. The concept is named after the British mathematician and logician Alan Turing, who introduced the Turing machine in the 1930s.

Key Points:

  1. Universality: A Turing complete system can theoretically perform any calculation that any other programmable computer can, given enough time and resources.
  2. Requirements: For a system to be Turing complete, it must have at least conditional branching (e.g., “if” statements) and the ability to change memory (e.g., assigning values to variables).
  3. Limitations: While Turing completeness indicates that a system can compute any computable function, it doesn’t provide insights into the efficiency or practicality of the computation. It also doesn’t mean the system can solve problems that are inherently unsolvable by Turing machines (like the Halting Problem).
  4. Programming Languages: Most modern programming languages (e.g., Python, Java, C++) are Turing complete. They can be used to implement any algorithm, given sufficient time and memory.
  5. Blockchain and Smart Contracts: The concept of Turing completeness is often discussed in the context of blockchain and smart contracts. Ethereum’s Solidity language, for example, is Turing complete, meaning developers can write smart contracts that can theoretically handle any computational task.
  6. Cellular Automata: The “Game of Life,” a cellular automaton devised by mathematician John Conway, is a well-known example of a Turing complete system. Despite its simple rules, it can simulate a Turing machine.
  7. Implications: Turing completeness has implications in areas like decidability and the Church-Turing thesis, which proposes that any real-world computation can be translated into an equivalent computation involving Turing machines.


  • A universal Turing machine can simulate any other Turing machine on any input.
  • The programming language Python is Turing complete because it can be used to write programs for any computable problem.
  • While Bitcoin’s scripting language is intentionally not Turing complete (for security reasons), Ethereum’s Solidity is, allowing for more complex decentralized applications.
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